Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. They belong among the instruments of life, not among its purposes. CROCE, BENEDETTO (1866 – 1952). Thus began a friendly collaboration that lasted twenty-five years. His universally and justly celebrated book on aesthetics, Estetica come scienza dell'espressione e linguistica generale (1902), which became the first volume of his systematic "philosophy of the spirit," was a foundation stone in the great revival of historical idealism in Italy between 1900 and 1920. Translated by Arthur Livingston as The Conduct of Life. With Gentile's help, Croce drafted a reform of the school system, rejected at the time but later incorporated in the fascist Riforma Gentile of 1923–1924. First published in The Book of the Opening of the Rice Institute. Questo sito utilizza cookies tecnici e di terze parti per funzionalità quali la condivisione sui social network.Cliccando su Accetto, scorrendo questa pagina o cliccando su qualunque suo elemento si acconsente all'uso dei cookie. Any proper element of experience can be considered from two theoretical and two practical points of view; it can be evaluated intuitively, rationally, economically, or morally. But he was initially more inclined to think of politics as an economic art or technique of directing selfish passions into orderly channels (as if there were no conflicting moral ideals in political life). Elementi di politica. He was a neutralist prior to Italy's entry into World War I in 1915; and in the postwar crisis, he became minister of public instruction in Giovanni Giolitti's last cabinet (1920–1921). It has already been shown how the circle of the spirit first appeared when Croce recognized practical impulse as the presupposed content of intuition. About mistakes in historical interpretation, his view appears to have been that (if the historian advances his hypotheses in a properly tentative spirit) they are not really errors but stages in the development of truth. Gentile buttressed an ethical theory similar to Croce's with the Hegelian conception of the national state as an ethical organism and as the bearer of the spirit in history. Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Bari: Laterza, 1932. Ariosto, Shakespeare, Corneille. But Croce never made this point, and he does not seem to have held this view. Borsari, Silvano. This view he subsequently abandoned. Liceo Statale "Benedetto Croce" Via Cavalieri di Vittorio Veneto, 9 67051 Avezzano (AQ) Tel: 0863 412264 Fax: 0863 410488 PEO: firstname.lastname@example.org PEC: email@example.com Cod. Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick (1882-1936), philosopher and epistemologist, was born in Berlin. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1924. But controversy led him to ask himself whether history was an art or a science, and he made a decisive choice in favor of the idealist view of the great Hegelian philosopher of art and literary historian Francesco De Sanctis (1817–1883). There is no such thing as simple usefulness; there is only usefulness for some purpose. New York: Holt, 1922. For Croce, however, the words reason and knowledge meant something very different from what they meant to Kant. The advent of fascism taught him that both of these extreme views were mistaken. Teoria e storia della storiografia. Bari, 1907. He displayed an early bent for literary and historical research but never seriously entered on an academic career, preferring to be master of his own course of study. In 1893 Croce published his first philosophical essay, "La storia ridotto sotto il concetto generale dell'arte" (History brought under the general concept of art), a title that foreshadowed the main concerns of his mature thought. In a long and diligent life devoted almost entirely to scholarly studies, Croce gained an international reputation in the fields of aesthetics, literary criticism, cultural history, and historical methodology; and he exercised in these areas an influence so pervasive that it cannot yet be definitively estimated. Bari: Laterza, 1913. Some intuitions, however, are more directly cosmic than others and are hard to characterize in terms of specific emotions; this was the classical counterweight against lyrical romanticism in Croce's thought. La poesia di Dante. Bari: Laterza, 1902. In 1900 came the first sketch of Croce's Aesthetic. For the rest of his life he exercised an ever-increasing influence on the literary and academic world through these two channels. If it had not been for his overriding concern with poetry, Croce might never have advanced to the second phase of his aesthetics, the theory that all intuition is "lyrical" in character. London: Heinemann, 1921. Yet he never accepted Gentile's view that this formal concession to the future meant that all deductions of "the forms of the spirit" were mistaken; he remained convinced that his logic possessed an eternal validity. Croce's aesthetics was a new transcendental analytic, and his logic was a new deduction of the categories. In spite of a serious stroke in 1950, he went on working right up to his death. A masterly survey of Croce's aesthetic writings. Translated by Douglas Ainslie as Philosophy of the Practical. Croce himself fostered this illusion by insisting that aesthetics was "the general science of language." According to Croce, the scientific knowledge of Kant's Critique was a myth, and belief in this myth was one type of logical error. Frammenti di etica. Even as the volumes of Croce's philosophy of spirit were being published, his association with Gentile was leading him to a reexamination of G. W. F. Hegel. It is easy—especially if one reads only the Breviary of Aesthetics (1912), as many English-speaking students do—to misinterpret Croce's theory that all art is lyrical as a type of romanticism, which he was, in fact, absolutely opposed to. Croce celebrated his eightieth birthday by founding and endowing the Institute for Historical Studies, which is still located in his former home. Croce himself distinguished four phases in his reflections on aesthetics. Caponigri, A. R. History and Liberty. ." La Biblioteca dell’Istituto italiano per gli studi storici conta attualmente 135.000 volumi, con 350 periodici correnti e un accrescimento annuo di circa 1000 volumi. Thus, history was initially "subsumed under the general concept of Art," as the subform of art that is concerned with the ordering of intuitions of actual existence. There can be no theory of economic life except from an independent ethical point of view. They cannot be genuinely cognitive because they are founded on pseudo concepts, not on the genuine forms of the pure concept. He did this because he held that no one could "close the gates of truth" against further progress. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Benedetto Croce (1866–1952) was a writer with an unusually wide-ranging mind who dominated Italian intellectual lif…, MARX, KARL Storia d'Italia dal 1871 al 1915. His own background and interests were predominantly literary, and his theory frequently seems specifically devised to meet the needs of literary critics who have to deal with poems, which are uniquely individual entities created in the conceptual (or logically universal) medium of language. The most fundamental of all distinctions in Croce's philosophy is the distinction between theory and practice. He emerged briefly in 1929 to speak in the senate against the concordat with the Vatican. Translated by Douglas Ainslie as History—Its Theory and Practice. Bari: Laterza, 1938. 13 D.Lgs. A study of the historical works. L'opera di Benedetto Croce. My Philosophy. - PRONTUARIO REGOLE ANTICOVID FAMIGLIE E ALUNNI His model here was Kant, rather than the often-cited Vico. il numero di telefono per essere eventualmente richiamati. The "circularity of the spirit" might seem to require that this form of historical consciousness become the content of poetic intuition. L’Istituto italiano per gli studi storici è stato fondato nel 1946 da Benedetto Croce, accanto alla sua monumentale biblioteca nella storica sede di palazzo Filomarino. Croce's Opere complete as of 1965 consists of 67 volumes. Under the influence of Gentile, Croce accepted the Hegelian identification of philosophy with the history of philosophy and reduced even the a priori judgments of his own logic (for example, that there are four forms of the spirit) to the status of historical judgments. Bari: Laterza, 1909. le scuole elementari e materne di Pula e di Domus de Maria. He published his results in 1907 (Ciò che è vivo e ciò che è morto nella filosofia di Hegel ) and made appropriate revisions in his Estetica and in his Logica come scienza del concetto puro (1905). Aesthetica in nuce. D.M. Translated by Douglas Ainslie as Aesthetic. At the moral level, this spontaneity becomes conscious freedom and self-possession. Translated by R. G. Collingwood as "Aesthetics," in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th ed. 81005130661 Fatt. Fisc. The true bearer of the spirit is the individual moral agent, and the state contains the dialectic of practical life as a whole (economics and ethics). Bari: Laterza, 1925. Unlike Gentile, Croce always refused to identify intuitions as "feelings" or to formulate his theory in terms of "feeling" at all, because he held that "feeling" was an ambiguous concept which when clarified referred to the practical impulse that is the content of intuition. "Croce, Benedetto (1866–1952) Because he held that all true judgment is historical, Croce could do little except offer historical illustrations of his view. The moral point of view is the final all-embracing awareness of the spirit as a whole, in its wholeness; hence this is the point of view from which true history can be written. London: Allen and Unwin, 1949. Laws are of necessity framed in terms of the pseudo concepts of economics and social science; even the moral habits and rules we adopt as our own guides are similarly abstract. Science and scientific investigation are forms of practical activity, not of cognition. "Croce, Benedetto (1866–1952) 12 novembre 2020 n. 159. These abstractions are enormously useful in practical experience—indeed, they are vital to the intelligent planning of our lives—but they could only be the basis of genuine knowledge if we were endowed with the kind of rational intuition into the "real essences" of things that is described in Plato's myths. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. In his theory of error, Croce followed René Descartes and Antonio Rosmini. Argo Pagonline è il nuovo sistema a disposizione dell'Istituto scolastico per ottemperare alle... NEGLI ALLEGATI TROVERETE: The problem he faced was essentially one of defining what it is that is nonconceptually communicated in poetry by way of language. See also Aesthetics, History of; Aesthetics, Problems of; Dante Alighieri; De Sanctis, Francesco; Descartes, René; Error; Gentile, Giovanni; Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von; Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich; Herbart, Johann Friedrich; Humboldt, Wilhelm von; Idealism; Intuition; Kant, Immanuel; Marx, Karl; Rosmini-Serbati, Antonio; Spaventa, Bertrando; Vico, Giambattista. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Benvenuti nel nostro sito web istituzionale. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/croce-benedetto-1866-1952, "Croce, Benedetto (1866–1952) Thus, for example, if a child reports that "the cat is on the mat," this is a statement of historical fact and its truth or falsity can be established.
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