marina mussolini 1940

heavy machine guns Breda 13.2 mm. Her superfiring 15 cm gun was moved amidships, and in 1926 moved back again, this time to clear space for a platform, holding a scout plane, a Macchi M.7 and later a CANT 25AR. Vittorio Veneto firing at the battle of cape Spartivento. var setNptTechAdblockerCookie = function(adblocker) { The idea however resurfaced after the crushing defeat of Cape Matapan, where the Ministry of the Navy finally realized the importance of air support, later compounded by the breathtaking air raid on Tarento (the main inspirator for Pearl Harbour to the Japanese). The Italians in wartime built 14 Acciaio and 10 Flutto (26 planned), underwater pocket submarine CMs (2 units), CC, CA (2) CB (22). Both uncompleted ships were scuttled in Trieste. }, Page last modified: Unsupported and unsupporting, these attacks were characterized by two recurring flaws in operational design. France aligned the bulk of the Marine Nationale there to protect its possessions in North Africa and West Africa, a department like Algeria, its protectorates like Morocco, and guaranteed access through the Suez Canal to its Indochinese colonies, just as vital as India for the British Empire. and Dr. James J. Tritten, June 1995, James Sadkovich, The Italian Navy in World War II. Their quasi-fanatical dedication to keeping the Africa Korps fueled, even if it meant piling highly explosive gasoline containers on the decks of their warships, speaks for itself. Marina Militare - World War II. The remaining units were scuttled, disabled by the crews, or struck by the Germans. “Supermarina” was perceived very early as a threat by France to its ties to Africa and conversely the Marine Nationale became for Mussolini an obstacle to his cherished expansion, the first stage of which was Abyssinia in 1935, and then Libya. Il Duce indeed tried to restore in modern times the greatness of the Empire Roman, a perfect nationalistic theme that fit its ego and ambition for Italy in the XXth Century. Benito Mussolini{ "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Person", "name": "Benito Mussolini", "gender": "Male" }, Rachele Mussolini{ "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Person", "name": "Rachele Mussolini", "gender": "Female" }, Bruno Mussolini{ "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Person", "name": "Bruno Mussolini", "gender": "Male" }, Gina Mussolini{ "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Person", "name": "Gina Mussolini", "gender": "Female" }, View Mariana Mussolini's Family Tree and History, Ancestry and Genealogy, Mariana Mussolini's father was Bruno Mussolini Mariana Mussolini's mother was Gina Mussolini, Mariana Mussolini's grandfather was Benito Mussolini Mariana Mussolini's grandmother was Rachele Mussolini, Mariana Mussolini's great grandmother was Anna Guidi Mariana Mussolini's great grandfather was Alessandro Mussolini Mariana Mussolini's great grandmother was Rosa Mussolini, Mariana Mussolini's former step-grandmother was Ida Dalser, Mariana Mussolini's uncle-by-marriage was Count Galeazzo Ciano Mariana Mussolini's uncle was Baby Mussolini Mariana Mussolini's aunt was Edda Ciano TBs were a must for short range operations in home waters, so they were largely seen as substitute destroyers for coastal defence. Cavagnari believed that the only possible strategy was defensive. Finally, some Ex-Italians ex-German submarines carrying supplies and never returned were recovered by the Japanese and, in turn, sunk by the US Navy. As a direct result of these weaknesses in operational design, Italy failed to capitalize on the victories of the assault teams to achieve grander objectives. Inter-service and intra-service cooperation were poor. By the end of 1942 the strategic conduct of war became solely defensive. Arguably the most successful Italian operation of the war (even honored by their enemy) are to be credited to special units such as “Flotilla 10” using explosive MAT and “Maiales”, human torpedoes, inflicting serious losses Like the cruiser York, the battleships Valiant and Queen Elizabeth. Most were sunk or scuttled in 1944-1945, and a few joined the Italian Social Republic (SALO regime). Zara class corresponded to the four Suffren. The weakness of AA artillery was also patent, the bulk of which comprised Breda 13mm mounts, not fir to catch fast, modern planes. To escort shipping and troops in Africa during the war, Italy also launched (lately) the construction of 47 corvettes of the “Gabbiano” class, a response to the British “Flower” well suited for the Mediterranean. In the same way, Toulon still had 11 destroyers of several classes, but only two were salvaged and repaired, entering active service as the FR21 (Lion) and FR32 (Scirocco) plus three Melpomène Class torpedo boats as the FR41 , 42 and 43. Then, with the Richelieu class was launched, the Roma class, enlarged sister-ships of the Littorio replied in turn, but too late. Captured ships For a short time, the French cruiser Jean de Vienne and La Galissonnière, sunk in Toulon, but salvaged and repaired were temporarily assigned to the Italian navy before the armistice, as FR11 and 12. Displacement: 5,900 standard tons Dimensions: 153.80 x 14.47 x 5.95 m Powerplant: 2 Parsons turbines, 3 boilers, 40,000 hp, 28 knots. In conjunction with this setback the Italian Navy suffered a decisive loss at Taranto when Royal Navy aircraft sank or damaged the main strikin gpower of the Italian fleet on the night of 11-12 November. The willingness of its officers and sailors to fight Allied vessels and protect Axis convoys, even when facing virtually suicidal odds, is well established. The famous Battle of Cape Matapan, was essentially a defeat, but most other engagement like Punta Stilo, Cape Spartivento, the two battle of Sirte were inconclusive and Operation Harpoon/Vigorous was a clear-cut Italian victory. Meghan and Harry are now US based. The final sortie of the Italian Navy was played in September 1943, with the armistice. The Italian military was told by Mussolini in March 1940 to plan for an air-naval offensive in the Mediterranean; a ground offensive in Yugoslavia, while the Army maintained a defensive posture in Albania, Libya, and theAegean; and a wait and see attitude on the French border. After the brief conflict with France and the removal of the threat of the Toulon fleet, the Italians launched their attack into Greece from Albania on 28 October 1940. They had one daughter, Marina, born on 18 March 1940 in Rome. Construction restarted, albeit still slowly, and the first was launched in May 1942 and the second in August 1941. In 1935, Bruno Mussolini joined the Royal Italian Air Force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana) and became a pilot. 68 torpedo boats, 16 of the class Ciclone and 52 Ariete, were started but few were completed and entered service in 1943. Mussolini did not think the war would last long, and decided to enter it to reap the benefits of victory without fighting. Italian yards also largely participated in the design of Soviet destroyers and cruisers. In August 1942, the Italian government requisitioned both ships, renamed Etna and Vesuvio. The first ofthese was weak strategic reassessment biased by fatal optimism and false bravado. He flew for the Regia Aeronautica during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War. However, he kept his armor and his heavy parts, very effective despite their small reach and their poor pace. The Yugoslav navy also captured in 1941 procured to Italy the powerful destroyers Dubrovnik, Ljubljana and Belgrade (renamed Premuda, Sebenico and Ljubljana) as well as six torpedo boats, two submarines, six minesweepers and a small gunboat. The lack of aircraft carriers and inadequate cooperation by the Regia Aeronautica in maritime missions afflicted the Navy throughout the war. Two Italian cruisers were ordered by Siam (Thailand) in 1938. Super-destroyer Scipione Africano – regiamarinaitaliana.forumgratis.org. The former aligned about the same number of ships to Italy, but dispersed between several strategic bases, securing passage to the Suez Canal, which basically shut the eastern Mediterranean while Gibraltar blocked access to the Atlantic. Rome, Italy. The Luftwaffe had a limited presence in the Mediterranean but the construction of two aircraft carriers should have changed the situation on the Italian side. In 1940, she was rearmed with a 100 mm twin turret and 6 additional dual AA, and used as a static AA defense battery in Tobruk. “Mare Nostrum”: This ancient motto known to the Greeks Byzantines and Turks was the embodiment of the a navy dreamed by Mussolini. The sixth group of Condottieri included the Ciano and Venezia, launched in June, but whose construction was suspended in 1940. Surface actions were many, and certainly not a pushover for the Royal Navy: battles of Cape Spada, Cape Bon, Cape Passero, Skerki Bank, Tarigo convoy, Cigno convoy, Campobasso convoy, Duisburg convoys, Operation Harpoon, and others for cruisers and destroyers and battleships battles like Punta Stilo, Capo Teulada, Operation Vigorous, the two battles of Sirte and Cape Matapan. About to send four astronauts to the ISS. This convoy, called the Duisburg Convoy after one of the merchantmen, was escorted by 2 cruisers, 11 destroyers, 3 submarines, and 72 aircraft. Mussolini's idea of a sphere of domination included Nice in France, Corsica, Malta, Tunisia, the Sudan, Aden, and potentially part of the French central African colonies. Thrown out of Greece, stalled in Egypt and its navy wounded, Italy's strategic outlook was not good and it was vulnerable to attack by the end of 1940. The second flaw was the lack of unity in Italy's command structure. This event placed the entire Italian Navy face to the Royal Navy in this area. Some went with the ships to Malta, some decided to stay or to move to the North because they believed their duty was to continue the war with the Germans. document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild(script); The Navy had identified problems like sometimes too prudent admirals, politic meddling into naval affairs, industrial shortcomings, or not always well coordinated naval aviation, technological gap (radar, modern sonar). These ships were used until the 1970s, proof of their sturdiness. The need to protect its own convoys drained resources and limited the Italian fleet's freedom of action against the British. However they did score some successes against the Malta convoys, especially in August 1942 with operation Pedestal. The doctrine for raids by assault vessels had been well developed and trained to during the 1930s. See the Elon Musk family tree here at FameChain. Italian submarines were also the most successful, engaged with the same tactics as the Germans in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. Explore how the celebrity world connects. Some destroyers of the second group of Soldati class were completed after the capitulation and served under German colors. Displacement: 9,440 t. standard -11 575 t. Full Load Dimensions: 187 m long, 18.90 m wide, 6.80 m draft Machinery: 2 propellers, 2 Parsons turbines, 8 Yarrow boilers, 100,000 hp. Italian heavy cruiser Trieste in Mar Grande, Taranto, early 1930s. Seized by the Germans, work restarted, but to no avail. A total of 34 ships, plus six H-class submarines (1917), three old battleships, three former Austrian minesweeper of the Albona class, Ostia and Fasana, and over 43 DR-class minesweepers also from WW1. Their ships were undoubtedly more aesthetic, sleek, streamlined and modern in appearance, but also cheaper. 3rd naval division: Trento, Trieste, Bolzano. script.setAttribute("onerror", "setNptTechAdblockerCookie(true);"); The Provence class had a more thorough refit in the early 1930s, but this was not enough for 1940. The Tarento was completely rebuilt in 1936-37, the front chimney was truncated in the second, 3-inch/40 AA guns replaced the original 88 mm models. Procione torpedo boat, Pegaso class (1937) – Giorgio Parodi coll. Destroyers classes by chronology included the Sella, Sauro, Turbine, Navigatori, Freccia, Folgore, Maestrale, Oriani and Soldati, seven of which were completed during the conflict. These were large “super-destroyers”. Already in 1918, they were overwhelmed, but the Admiralty decided to keep one in use, the San Giorgio, to convert it into a coastal defense vessel, preferably assigned to the colonies of North Africa. The German High Command requested, and the Italian Navy obliged, assistance for naval operations on the Black Sea against the Soviet Union. This initial guidance directed the Navy to maintain a defensive attitude but to exploit opportunities for medium-sized clashes. Name: Marina. 12 light cruisers of the Capitani romani class were also started, 8 launched, but only four entered service. The first battle of Sirte proved a clear-cut Italian Victory while the second battle was a Pyrrhic victory for the British. The San Marco Naval Infantry Regiment had an active role in the struggle for the liberation of the peninsula. Born. Top speed: 34 knots Armour: Belt 130, bridge 30-40, turrets 135, blockhouse 100 mm Armament: 10 x 152 (2×2, 2×3), 8 x 100 (4×2), 8 x 37 AA, 8 x 13.2 AA, 6 x 533 mm TTs (2×3) Crew 692. Given the resources provided, the overall strategy of the war effort, individual Service and overall strategic culture, geography and demographics, and the type of government, the Italian Navy performed about as well as could be expected. var d = new Date(); Many cadets from the Naval Academy fought under the command of the Italian Corps of Liberation. Mussolini’s widow Rachele returned to Predappio after the war and ran a restaurant. There, attempts to repair and rebuild scuttled ships by Germany were generally unsuccessful. From the summer of 1940 when Italy entered World War II, to the Italian armistice in the fall of 1943, a handful of brave and tenacious Italian patriots, carried out a naval guerrilla war against Allied ships in the British controlled harbors of the Mediterranean Sea. The design paralleled a radical overhaul of ww1 dreadnoughts, Cesare and Duilio classes, which were brand new in 1940. The idea of an aircraft carrier in Italy was long brushed aside by Mussolini, speaking of Italy being itself a super-large aircraft carrier, which was arguably true due to the central position in the Mediterranean. However this was an heaven match as the Regia Marina inflicted the most massive lost to the British submarine force: Of 76 submarines lost by the Royal Navy in WWII, 37 were sunk by Italian forces, 24 by the Germans and 4 by the Japanese forces, and 11 by accidents, friendly fire, or unknown causes*. The Italian Navy successfully used assault vessels at Souda Bay (March 27, 1941), midget submarines at Alexandria (November 19, 1941), and in later attacks at Gibraltar, Haifa and Malta. The yacht of the Admiralty, the frigate Diana, was also converted. Následně se jim v manželství narodili potomci: Vittorio (1916–1997), Bruno (1918–1941), Romano (1927–2006) a Anna Marie (1929–1968). Aircraft carriers: France had definitely an advantage with Béarn (a converted battleship) against nothing comparable in Italy. The 1,625 long tons Ciclone class of 1942 were considered rightly as escort destroyers. The passenger ship Giuseppe Miraglia was converted to operate seaplanes in the 1920s, which answered to the French Commandant Teste, a far larger, purpose-built ship. The Democratic party contender for President. At the time of his death, Bruno Mussolini was married to Gina Ruberti who drowned during a late night boating party with British soldiers on Lake Como on 4 May 1946, at age 29. Italian ships began to co-operate with the Allies for escort operations, withdrawal of Italian soldiers from the Balkans, and for special missions. #ga-ad {display: none;} Should you have information that conflicts with anything shown please make us aware by email. Displacement: 9,470 t. standard -11 500 t. Full Load Dimensions: 145 m long, 18.90 m wide, 6.30 m draft Machines: 2 propellers, 4 Yarrow boilers, 60,000 hp. Mussolini had mistakenly predicted a short war, assuming that the resupply of Libya would not become an issue. Concepts for initial operations in the Mediterranean were released by the Chief of Staff on May 29, 1940, about two weeks prior to Mussolini's declaration of war.  The San Giorgio and San Marco were two armoured cruisers of 1908, which made the pride of the Italian Navy. In April 1940, the Chief of Staff of the Navy, Admiral DomenicoCavagnari, summarized the Navy's key shortfalls to the head ofthe government. See the Joe Biden family tree. *https://www.naval-history.net/WW2aBritishLosses10tables.htm regiamarina.net/ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regia_Marina en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Mediterranean navypedia.org/ships/italy/it_cm_amc2.htm defensemedianetwork.com/stories/book-review-mussolinis-navy/ Conway’s all the world fighting ships 1906-1921 & 1921-1947, Argentinian Navy Brazilian Navy Armada de Chile Chinese Navy Danish Navy Finnish Navy French Navy Hellenic Navy Royal Indian navy Italian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy German Navy Polish Navy Romanian Navy Sovietskaya Flota Spanish Armada Swedish Navy Dutch Navy Royal Canadian Navy Royal Navy RNZN Sjøforsvaret Thai Navy Turkish Navy US Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy Minor Navies, Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928).

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