medusa, in psicoanalisi

She remained a priestess to Athena after her death and was risen with fresh hair. Not that we're looking to start something. Sy het slange in plaas van hare op haar kop gehad en enigiemand wat na haar gekyk het, het in klip verander. [9] In a similar manner, the corals of the Red Sea were said to have been formed of Medusa's blood spilled onto seaweed when Perseus laid down the petrifying head beside the shore during his short stay in Ethiopia where he saved and wed his future wife, the lovely princess Andromeda who was the most beautiful woman in the world at that time. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Perseus then flew to Seriphos, where his mother was being forced into marriage with the king, Polydectes, who was turned into stone by the head. Mid 18th century named by association with Medusa. The cover featured the image of the Gorgon Medusa by Froggi Lupton, which the editors on the inside cover explained "can be a map to guide us through our terrors, through the depths of our anger into the sources of our power as women. (Pythian Ode 12). Probably the feminine present participle of. [26] Beyond that, Medusa's story is, Johnston argues, a rape narrative. When Perseus beheaded her, Pegasus, a winged horse, and Chrysaor, a giant wielding a golden sword, sprang from her body.[7]. ‘A medusa, or jellyfish, is part of the life cycle of just one major group of animals, the cnidarians.’. [32][33] In this interpretation of Medusa, attempts to avoid looking into her eyes represent avoiding the ostensibly depressing reality that the universe is meaningless. He plays with the concept by replacing Medusa's face with his own, as an indication of his immunity to her dreadful gaze. Definition of medusa. The blood of Medusa also spawned the Amphisbaena (a horned dragon-like creature with a snake-headed tail). If a member of the audience describes your speech as. Elizabeth Johnston's November 2016 Atlantic essay called Medusa the original 'Nasty Woman.' 1 capitalized [Latin, from Greek Medousa] : a mortal Gorgon who is slain when decapitated by Perseus. Through many of her iterations, Medusa pushes back against a story that seeks to place the male, Perseus, at its center, blameless and heroic. The terror of Medusa is thus a terror of castration that is linked to the sight of something. Inspired by the #metoo movement, contemporary figurative artist Judy Takács returns Medusa's beauty along with a hashtag stigmata in her portrait, #Me(dusa)too. Through the lens of theology, film, art, and feminist literature, my students and I map how her meaning has shifted over time and across cultures. These Foreign Words And Phrases Are Now Used In English. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Here Are Our Top English Tips, The Best Articles To Improve Your English Language Usage, The Most Common English Language Questions, one can't make an omelette without breaking eggs. Looking at forbidden mother (in her hair-covered genitals, so to speak) stiffens the subject in illicit desire and freezes him in terror of the Father's retribution. In one interview after another we were told that Medusa is 'the most horrific woman in the world' ... [though] none of the women we interviewed could remember the details of the myth. She's beautiful and she's laughing. A story of victim blaming, one that she says sounds all too familiar in a current American context. [citation needed]. In Freud's interpretation: "To decapitate = to castrate. 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? Inscribe the breath of the whole woman. One example is that of the flag and emblem of Sicily, together with the three legged trinacria. In an ode written in 490 BC Pindar already speaks of "fair-cheeked Medusa".[5]. Send us feedback. "[22] Griselda Pollock analyses the passage from horrorism to compassion in the figure of the Medusa through Adriana Cavarero's philosophy and Bracha Ettinger's art and Matrixial theory. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). ‘Cnidarians have two basic body forms, medusa and polyp.’. See Article History. As well has having snakes for hair, she was given a serpent-like body and rattlesnake-like tail. Those who gazed into her eyes would turn to stone. "[29] Cixous wants to destroy the phallogocentric system, and to empower women's bodies and language. Delivered to your inbox! "[22], In issue three, Fall 1986 for the magazine Woman of Power an article called Gorgons: A Face for Contemporary Women's Rage, appeared, written by Emily Erwin Culpepper, who wrote that "The Amazon Gorgon face is female fury personified. He received a mirrored shield from Athena, gold, winged sandals from Hermes, a sword from Hephaestus and Hades's helm of invisibility. He believes that one reason for her longevity may be her role as a protector, fearsome and enraged. Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about medusa. According to Hesiod and Aeschylus, she lived and died on an island named Sarpedon, somewhere near Cisthene. The Gorgon/Medusa image has been rapidly adopted by large numbers of feminists who recognize her as one face of our own rage. Jane Ellen Harrison argues that "her potency only begins when her head is severed, and that potency resides in the head; she is in a word a mask with a body later appended... the basis of the Gorgoneion is a cultus object, a ritual mask misunderstood. [17][18][19][20] The name "Medusa" itself is often used in ways not directly connected to the mythological figure but to suggest the gorgon's abilities or to connote malevolence; despite her origins as a beauty, the name in common usage "came to mean monster. That is to say, there occurred in the early thirteenth century B.C. "And she's not deadly. The 2nd-century BC novelist Dionysios Skytobrachion puts her somewhere in Libya, where Herodotus had said the Berbers originated her myth, as part of their religion. During that time, Medusa was pregnant by Poseidon. It was chosen because she represents beauty, art, and philosophy. Municipal coat of arms of Dohalice village, Hradec Králové District, Czech Republic, Ceremonial French military uniform belt of World War I, Medusa is honored in the following scientific names:[37], The petrifying image of Medusa makes an instantly recognizable feature in popular culture. “Medusa.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/medusa. The legend of Perseus beheading Medusa means, specifically, that "the Hellenes overran the goddess's chief shrines" and "stripped her priestesses of their Gorgon masks", the latter being apotropaic faces worn to frighten away the profane. Cixous calls writing "an act which will not only 'realize' the decensored relation of woman to her sexuality, to her womanly being, giving her access to her native strength; it will give her back her goods, her pleasures, her organs, her immense bodily territories which have been kept under seal." In some species, medusae are a phase in the life cycle which alternates with a polypoid phase. Its purpose was to act as a guardian for female power, keeping the book solely in the hands of women. 2 plural medusae\ mi- ˈdü- ˌsē. Most sources describe her as the daughter of Phorcys and Ceto,[2] although the author Hyginus makes her the daughter of Gorgon and Ceto.[3]. How to pronounce medusae (audio) The inclusion of Medusa in the center implies the protection of the goddess Athena, who wore the Gorgon's likeness on her aegis, as said above. Stephen Wilk, author of Medusa: Solving the Mystery of the Gorgon, questioned Medusa's enduring status among the feminist movement. What made you want to look up medusa? [16], In the 20th century, feminists reassessed Medusa's appearances in literature and in modern culture, including the use of Medusa as a logo by fashion company Versace. It is in the Roman poet Ovid ’s Metamorphoses that her story is … Medusa was beheaded by the Greek hero Perseus, who thereafter used her head, which retained its ability to turn onlookers to stone, as a weapon[4] until he gave it to the goddess Athena to place on her shield. Athena’s) temple,[6] Athena punished Medusa by transforming her beautiful hair into horrible snakes. In most versions of the story, she was beheaded by the hero Perseus, who was sent to fetch her head by King Polydectes of Seriphus because Polydectes wanted to marry Perseus's mother. Jack London uses Medusa in this way in his novel The Mutiny of the Elsinore:[34]. "[22], Medusa's visage has since been adopted by many women as a symbol of female rage; one of the first publications to express this idea was a feminist journal called Women: A Journal of Liberation in their issue one, volume six for 1978. She claims "we must kill the false woman who is preventing the live one from breathing. In a late version of the Medusa myth, by the Roman poet Ovid (Metamorphoses 4.794–803), Medusa was originally a beautiful maiden, but when Poseidon had sex with her in "Minerva's" (i.e. [24], Even in contemporary pop culture, Medusa has become largely synonymous with feminine rage. Classic Medusa, in contrast, is an Oedipal/libidinous symptom. Numerous analyses have made us familiar with the occasion for this: it occurs when a boy, who has hitherto been unwilling to believe the threat of castration, catches sight of the female genitals, probably those of an adult, surrounded by hair, and essentially those of his mother. Due to its bizarre and intricate design, the painting is said to complement Caravaggio's unique fascination with … ‘Two major adult body types characterize the phylum: the medusa is typically a mobile pelagic organism, and the polyp is typically a sessile benthic … Harrison's translation states "the Gorgon was made out of the terror, not the terror out of the Gorgon."[8]. an actual historic rupture, a sort of sociological trauma, which has been registered in this myth, much as what Freud terms the latent content of a neurosis is registered in the manifest content of a dream: registered yet hidden, registered in the unconscious yet unknown or misconstrued by the conscious mind. Since Medusa was the only one of the three Gorgons who was mortal, Perseus was able to slay her while looking at the reflection from the mirrored shield he received from Athena. In 1940, Sigmund Freud's "Das Medusenhaupt (Medusa's Head)" was published posthumously. From Hades should send up an awful monster's grisly head. "[8] In the Odyssey xi, Homer does not specifically mention the Gorgon Medusa: Lest for my daring Persephone the dread, [28], Feminist theorist Hélène Cixous famously tackled the myth in her essay "The Laugh of the Medusa." Beth Seelig analyzes Medusa's punishment from the aspect of the crime of having been raped rather than having willingly consented in Athena's temple as an outcome of the goddess' unresolved conflicts with her own father, Zeus. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Do you know what languages these words come from? In classical antiquity the image of the head of Medusa appeared in the evil-averting device known as the Gorgoneion. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. "The Laugh of the Medusa" is largely a call to arms, urging women to reclaim their identity through writing as she rejects the patriarchal society of Western culture. 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? The model was one Harryhausen’s most complex and in 2020 it was voted third favourite among his many creations. The only mortal gorgon, whom Perseus killed by cutting off her head. Johnston goes on to say that as Medusa has been repeatedly compared to Clinton during the 2016 presidential election, she proves her merit as an icon, finding relevance even in modern politics. "[31], Medusa has sometimes appeared as representing notions of scientific determinism and nihilism, especially in contrast with romantic idealism. The Medusa story has also been interpreted in contemporary art as a classic case of rape-victim blaming, by the Goddess Athena. According to Ovid, in northwest Africa, Perseus flew past the Titan Atlas, who stood holding the sky aloft, and transformed him into stone when he tried to attack him. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'medusa.' [39], Classical Greek depiction of Medusa from the fourth century BC, The triple form is not primitive, it is merely an instance of a general tendency... which makes of each woman goddess a trinity, which has given us the. Medusa has been depicted in several works of art, including: Medusa remained a common theme in art in the nineteenth century, when her myth was retold in Thomas Bulfinch's Mythology. Author Sibylle Baumbach described Medusa as a “multimodal image of intoxication, petrifaction, and luring attractiveness," citing her seductive contemporary representation, as well as her dimensionality, as the reason for her longevity.[25]. Archetypal literary criticism continues to find psychoanalysis useful. Two versions of Medusa were created by Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio – one in 1596 and the other in 1597 – depicting the exact moment she was executed by Perseus. Learn a new word every day. Edward Burne-Jones' Perseus Cycle of paintings and a drawing by Aubrey Beardsley gave way to the twentieth century works of Paul Klee, John Singer Sargent, Pablo Picasso, Pierre et Gilles, and Auguste Rodin's bronze sculpture The Gates of Hell.[36]. Furthermore, the poisonous vipers of the Sahara, in the Argonautica 4.1515, Ovid's Metamorphoses 4.770 and Lucan's Pharsalia 9.820, were said to have grown from spilt drops of her blood. 1Zoology A free-swimming sexual form of a coelenterate such as a jellyfish, typically having an umbrella-shaped body with stinging tentacles around the edge. She argues that men's retelling of the narrative turned Medusa into a monster because they feared female desire. Then Perseus gave the Gorgon's head to Athena, who placed it on her shield, the Aegis.[10]. The head of Medusa is featured on some regional symbols. In particular, the designer Versace's symbol is reflected through the Medusa-head symbol. World Register of Marine Species. "From Gorgon and Ceto, Sthenno, Euryale, Medusa". The most influential depiction of Medusa in film is arguably the stop motion animation created by Ray Harryhausen for Clash of the Titans (1981). Are You Learning English? A free-swimming sexual form of a coelenterate such as a jellyfish, typically having an umbrella-shaped body with stinging tentacles around the edge. 14th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1. In so doing, we unravel a familiar narrative thread: In Western culture, strong women have historically been imagined as threats requiring male conquest and control, and Medusa herself has long been the go-to figure for those seeking to demonize female authority. There are no recorded instances of Medusa turning a woman to stone. Available from. The three Gorgon sisters—Medusa, Stheno, and Euryale—were all children of the ancient marine deities Phorcys (or "Phorkys") and his sister Ceto (or "Keto"), chthonic monsters from an archaic world. ", "The Timeless Myth of Medusa, a Rape Victim Turned Into a Monster", Online version at the Perseus Digital Library, Online version at Harvard University Press, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, "Medusa in Myth and Literary History" – English.uiuc.edu, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Medusa&oldid=988535557, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 19:40. "Only the Gorgon has the savage, threatening appearance to serve as an immediately recognized symbol of rage and a protector of women's secrets," wrote Wilk. Last edited on 13 November 2020, at 19:40, Cultural depictions of Medusa and Gorgons, "Bulfinch Mythology – Age of Fable – Stories of Gods & Heroes", Frank Justus Miller translation, as revised by G. P. Goold, "The Rape of Medusa in the Temple of Athena: Aspects of Triangulation", "Endless the Medusa: a feminist reading of Medusan imagery and the myth of the hero in Eudora Welty's novels.

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