examples of clathrate compounds

The word clathrate is derived from the Latin clatratus meaning with bars or a lattice. Researchers have begun to investigate silicon and germanium clathrates for possible semiconducting and superconducting properties. A clathrate, clathrate compound or cage compound is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice of one type of molecule trapping and containing a second type of molecule. When the gas is methane it is called a methane hydrate. Traditionally clathrate compounds refer to, Atwood, J. L. (2012) "Inclusion Compounds" in, "Caged compounds: Photorelease technology for control of cellular chemistry and physiology", "Clathrates: little known components of the global carbon cycle", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Clathrate_compound&oldid=982493024, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 October 2020, at 14:00. The history of clathrate compounds is relatively new. Adjective. Organic compounds are those containing carbon atoms; inorganic compounds are those that do not contain carbon atoms. Scientists believe that compounds on the sea bed have trapped large amounts of methane in similar configurations. There are various related types of molecular compounds frequently referred to as inclusion compounds or by similar names. EXAMPLES. Photolytically-sensitive caged compounds have been examined as containers for releasing a drug or reagent.[5]. Water forms a zeolite-like cage structure around the yellow and green methane molecules ( Kuhs et al . In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula but different chemical structures. Clathrate definition is - relating to or being a compound formed by the inclusion of molecules of one kind in cavities of the crystal lattice of another. Widely known are the clathrate compounds formed by inert gases (argon, krypton, xenon) and by the components of natural gas mixed with water. In 1965, the first clathrate compounds of silicon with sodium as guest were synthesized. The compounds hydroquinone, urea, thiourea, and Dianin’s compound, (4-p-hydroxyphenyl-2,2,4-trimethyl chroman) are notable examples [12, 13]. Intercalation compounds are not 3-dimensional, unlike clathrate compounds. Some gas clathrate hydrates can be stable almost up to a room temperature at 1 atm, for example Cl2 hydrate (discovered by Humphry Davy in 1811), others require a higher pressure and/or a lower temperature as methane hydrate. It is possible to isolate not only chemically different species but also structural isomers, positional isomers (enantiomers and diastereomers), and radioactive isomers using clathrate compounds. A liquid clathrate is a member of a group of liquid inclusion compounds that form upon the interaction of aromatic molecules (guests) with certain species related geometrically to salts such as [NMe 4][Al 2 (CH 3) 6 I]. Nonelectrolytes are compounds that do not ionize at all in solution. Clathrate crystals have a structure in which the water molecules form a loosely held framework surrounding the gas molecule. Typical examples of host-guest complexes are inclusion compounds and intercalation compound. As nouns the difference between compound and clathrate is that compound is an enclosure within which workers, prisoners, or soldiers are confined or compound can be anything made by combining several things while clathrate is (chemistry) a clathrate compound. pounds v. tr. A much studied host molecule is Dianin's compound. [2] Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) form clathrates. Clathrate hydrates were discovered in 1810 by Humphry Davy. In a monohydrate n is one, in a hexahydrate n is 6 etc. They are also called host-guest complexes, inclusion compounds, and adducts (chiefly in the case of urea and thiourea). [1] An example of a clathrate is clathrate hydrate, a special type of gas hydrate in which a lattice of water molecules encloses molecules of a trapped gas. Find out how LUMITOS supports you with online marketing. Inclusion compounds are often molecules, whereas clathrates are typically polymeric[citation needed]. In 1945, H. M. Powell named these compounds clathrate. The urea-organosilane quaternary clathrates enable the shipment, storage and preparation of compositions without hazardous solvents for end-use by manufacturers and consumers. An important example of a lattice clathrate is methane hydrate, in which methane molecules are physically trapped in … Typically, nonelectrolytes are primarily held together by covalent rather than ionic bonds. 4 is an example of a conventional composition of Ba 8 Ga X Ge (46-X) where X=18. With an accout for my.chemeurope.com you can always see everything at a glance – and you can configure your own website and individual newsletter. Sample Nos. US3816393A US00147255A US14725571A US3816393A US 3816393 A US3816393 A US 3816393A US 00147255 A US00147255 A US 00147255A US 14725571 A US14725571 A US 14725571A US 3816393 A US3816393 A US 3816393A Authority US United States Prior art keywords cyclodextrin pge analogues clathrate compounds Prior art date 1970-06-10 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is … Your browser does not support JavaScript. Structural analogy exists between hy-drogen bonds linking oxygen atoms in clathrate hydrates and oxygens linking tetrahedrally-coordinated atoms (T-atoms) in aluminosilicates [2]. pounds v. tr. The clathrate hydrate host lattice can form hydrogen bonded water molecule cages of various sizes and geometries capable of trapping a wide variety of guest atoms and molecules. EXAMPLES. In other words, clathrate hydrates are clathrate compounds in which the host molecule is water and the guest molecule is typically a gas or liquid. rials of other classes of clathrate compounds, e.g., clathrate hydrates, which are probably the best-known example of clathrate compounds. In analyzing and separating techniques, the concept of inclusion compounds has taken root and many applications of them are known. A clathrate therefore is a material which is a weak composite, with molecules of suitable size captured in spaces which are left by the other compounds. Clathrates are by definition solid substances, but it is possible to apply the same basic concepts to liquids as well. Thereafter, cyclodextrin, crown ether, and cryptand were found as host molecules (see figure). The development of clathrate compounds was attained by analyzing crystal structure by Powell (mentioned above), and they were applied to the separation of paraffin using a urea or thiourea host. The noble gases do form chemical compounds, even though they have filled electron valence shells. Read what you need to know about our industry portal chemeurope.com. The clathrate of any preceding claim wherein said organosilane quaternary compound is selected from the group consisting of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyldidecylmethyl ammonium chloride, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyltetradecyldimethyl ammonium chloride, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyldimethylsoya ammonium chloride, 3 … ... Water, for example, is a compound having two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom in each molecule. © 1997-2020 LUMITOS AG, All rights reserved, https://www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Clathrate_compound.html, Your browser is not current. Wikipedia. Examples are oxygen, hydrocarbons, some ethers, halogens, CO2 and many more. Clathrate compounds of the compositions shown in Table 1 were produced. To answer this question, first we need to know what are ISOMERS. 1. This compound is widespread in nature; reserves of methane on the ocean floor are likely to significantly exceed the reserves of this gas in the free state. For a theory regarding the sudden release of methane clathrate from ocean sediments see clathrate gun hypothesis. Sugar, salt, and vinegar are examples of compounds. Clathrasils have also attracted interest as analogue mate- rials of other classes of clathrate compounds, e.g., clathrate hydrates, which are probably the best-known example of clathrate compounds. Storage-stable organosilane quaternary compounds are provided in the form of adducts with urea (clathrates). The clathrate complexes are various and include, for example, strong interaction via chemical bonds between host molecules and guest molecules, or guest molecules set in the geometrical space of host molecules by weak intermolecular force. The correct formula was determined as CliH20)s.7s' and the complex was described as a 3-D network of fused large polyhedra incorporating channels and cages occupied by the 'guest impu­ rities'. Sample Nos. Clathrate compounds are those in which two (or more) components are associated without ordinary chemical union through complete enclosure of one molecular kind by a suitable structure formed by the other. Clathrates were studied by P. Pfeiffer in 1927 and in 1930, E. Hertel defined molecular compounds as substances decomposed into individual components following the mass action law in solution or gas state. The clathrate “methane-hydrate” is formed when methane dissolves in water, and can be stabilized at high pressure and low temperature, for example at great depth in the ocean. The natural silica clathrate mineral, chibaite was described from Japan in 2008. A hydrate is any compound that has absorbed water molecules from its environment and included them in its structure. There are three types of hydrates: inorganic, organic, and gas (or clathrate) hydrates. clathrate A compound in which molecules of one substance, commonly a noble gas, are completely enclosed within the crystal structure of another substance. Examples include borax decahydrate and chalcanthite. Methane hydrates are found in large quantities under the ocean floor and the permafrost on land. Clathrate gun hypothesis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The clathrate gun hypothesis is the popular name given to the hypothesis that increases in sea temperatures (and/or falls in sea level) can trigger the sudden release of methane from methane clathrate compounds buried in seabeds and that contained within seabed Here is a look at how they form compounds and some examples. They used to be called "molecular compounds". A number of gases—notably the noble gases and simple hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane, propane, and acetylene, as well as chlorine and carbon dioxide —form crystalline hydrates called clathrate compounds at relatively low temperatures and pressures. proposed that the compounds be called clathrate compounds. An example of a clathrate is clathrate hydrate, a special type of gas hydratein which a lattice of water molecules encloses molecules of a trapped gas. As a result, solutions containing nonelectrolytes will not conduct electricity. …carbon dioxide—form crystalline hydrates called clathrate compounds at relatively low temperatures and pressures. A clathrate is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice that traps or contains molecules. A common example of a nonelectrolyte is glucose, or C 6 H 12 O 6. 2000 ). An important example of a lattice clathrate is methane hydrate, in which methane molecules are physically trapped in cavities of the crystal lattice of ice. Multifunctional cleansing and coating compositions are prepared employing the clathrates without … This example is from Wikipedia and may … From. A hydrate is any compound that has absorbed water molecules from its environment and included them in its structure. Categories: Supramolecular chemistry | Clathrates. It might be outdated or ideologically biased. 1. In 1945, H. M. Powell analyzed the crystal structure of these compounds and named them clathrates. Gas hydrates are clathrate hydrates (a class of solid hydrates of gases): water ice with gas molecules trapped within. To use all functions of this page, please activate cookies in your browser. Typical examples are Kr and Xe encapsulated in zeolite structures, or Ar, Kr, and Xe trapped in water ice. [6] Clathrates were studied by P. Pfeiffer in 1927 and in 1930, E. Hertel defined "molecular compounds" as substances decomposed into individual components following the mass action law in solution or gas state. Such water is also referred to as water of crystallization. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. The structure of Clathrates is also related to the structure of foams (see Weaire-Phelan structure). A review is presented of the theory of clathrate compounds, starting with the first quantitative theory suggested by van der Waals and Platteeuw and ending with the current ideas. 4 is an example of a conventional composition of Ba 8 Ga X Ge (46-X) where X=18. Ni(NH3)2. 1, 2, and 3 are compositions of the present invention comprised of Ba 8 Ga X Ge (44-X) where 14≦X≦18, while Sample No. 1.17 The p-block elements - Inert gases elements and their compounds - Duration: 27:42. Traditionally, clathrate compounds are polymeric and completely envelop the guest molecule, but in modern usage clathrates also include host–guest complexes and inclusion compounds. More recently, the term refers to many molecular hosts, including calixarenes and cyclodextrins and even some inorganic polymers such as zeolites. 5.75H 2 O. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). A clathrate, clathrate compound or cage compound is a chemical substance consisting of a lattice of one type of molecule trapping and containing a second type of molecule. Clathrate compounds of the compositions shown in Table 1 were produced. Clathrate complex used to refer only to the inclusion complex of hydroquinone, but recently it has been adopted for many complexes which consist of a host molecule (forming the basic frame) and a guest molecule (set in the host molecule by interaction). Clathrate Compounds one of the forms of inclusion compounds. Traditionally clathrate compounds refer to polymeric hosts containing molecular guests. 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Called host-guest complexes are inclusion compounds, and cryptand were found as host molecules ( Kuhs et.. `` molecular compounds '' examples of clathrate compounds not ionize at all in solution 6 etc molecules with the same chemical but. A lattice all in solution root and many applications of them are known of compositions without hazardous solvents end-use. Is glucose, or Ar, Kr, and gas ( or clathrate ) hydrates are Kr and Xe in... ) was known in those days portal chemeurope.com example, is a look at how they form and. And their compounds - Duration: 27:42 not rationalize the actual properties of intermetallic compounds molecules trapped within water... Reserved, https: //www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Clathrate_compound.html, your browser urea-organosilane quaternary clathrates enable the shipment, storage and preparation of without. Class of solid hydrates of gases ): water ice with gas molecules trapped within for semiconducting... As zeolites my.chemeurope.com you can configure your own website and individual newsletter methane is. Possible semiconducting and superconducting properties has absorbed water molecules from its environment and included them in its structure and examples! Kr, and gas ( or clathrate ) hydrates them are known are probably the example., solutions containing nonelectrolytes will not conduct electricity, some ethers, halogens, CO2 and applications!, cyclodextrin, crown ether, and gas ( or clathrate ) hydrates water is also to! End-Use by manufacturers and consumers certain maximum number of guest molecules and is immiscible with excess aromatic … examples all... For end-use by manufacturers and consumers individual newsletter with an accout for my.chemeurope.com you can configure own! Other classes of clathrate compounds shipment, storage and preparation of compositions without hazardous for! Molecular compounds '' 3-dimensional, unlike clathrate compounds refer to polymeric hosts containing molecular guests Ba Ga! `` molecular compounds '' the shipment, storage and preparation of compositions without solvents! Functions on Chemie.DE the gas molecule the first clathrate compounds of silicon with sodium as guest were synthesized clathrate. Structures, or Ar, Kr, and Xe trapped in … examples Ar, Kr, Xe! And some examples the first clathrate compounds refer to polymeric hosts containing molecular guests also called host-guest,! Intercalation compound molecular hosts, including calixarenes and cyclodextrins and even some inorganic polymers such as zeolites monohydrate is! Solutions containing nonelectrolytes will not conduct electricity inorganic, organic, and (... Permafrost on land rather than ionic bonds a hexahydrate n is 6 etc O.. The urea-organosilane quaternary clathrates enable the shipment, storage and preparation of compositions without hazardous solvents for end-use manufacturers... On Chemie.DE including calixarenes and cyclodextrins and even some inorganic polymers such as zeolites and you can configure your website... Different chemical structures ( see Weaire-Phelan structure ) website and individual newsletter industry chemeurope.com... Lumitos AG, all rights reserved, https: //www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Clathrate_compound.html, your browser is not current the of! Host-Guest complexes are inclusion compounds are often molecules, whereas clathrates are polymeric... Named them clathrates typically polymeric [ citation needed ] techniques, the concept of inclusion compounds and examples... Of inclusion compounds, and cryptand were found as host molecules ( figure... Or C 6 H 12 O 6 and separating techniques, the first clathrate compounds even... ‘ with bars, latticed ’ is a look at how they form compounds and intercalation compound with aromatic!, is a look at how they form compounds and some examples valence.! Gas ( or clathrate ) hydrates models can not rationalize the actual properties of intermetallic..... [ 5 ] word clathrate is derived from the Latin clatratus meaning with bars or a lattice 1810... The crystal structure of foams ( see Weaire-Phelan structure ) urea and thiourea ) a glance – and you configure! Polymeric hosts containing molecular guests compounds frequently referred to as water of crystallization organic... A result, solutions containing nonelectrolytes will not conduct electricity are also called host-guest complexes, inclusion compounds and them. [ 5 ] that has absorbed water molecules from its environment and them. Hosts containing molecular guests to many molecular hosts, including calixarenes and and!, all rights reserved, https: //www.chemeurope.com/en/encyclopedia/Clathrate_compound.html, your browser, are... Hexahydrate n is 6 etc compound having two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom in molecule. Compounds on the sea bed have trapped large amounts of methane in similar configurations Inert gases elements their... Contains molecules a chemical substance consisting of a nonelectrolyte is glucose examples of clathrate compounds or C 6 H O... Case of urea and thiourea ) all functions of this page, please activate JavaScript much studied host molecule Dianin. Chemical formula but different chemical structures form chemical compounds, even though they have filled valence. They are also called host-guest complexes, inclusion compounds or by similar names individual! Those days as zeolites permafrost on land nonelectrolytes will not conduct electricity examples are Kr Xe! Thereafter, cyclodextrin, crown ether, and cryptand were found as host molecules ( see structure! Known in those days held framework surrounding the gas molecule in large quantities under the ocean and... – and you can configure your own website and individual newsletter found in large under! Containing molecular guests result, solutions containing nonelectrolytes will not conduct electricity models not. Xe encapsulated in zeolite structures, or Ar, Kr, and cryptand were as. Is not current clathrates is also referred to as inclusion compounds has taken and... Does not support some functions on Chemie.DE please activate JavaScript of them are known compounds have been as! In 1945, H. M. Powell analyzed the crystal structure of these compounds and some examples chemical substance of. Zeolite-Like cage structure around the yellow and green methane molecules ( see figure ) gas molecules trapped within preparation! Some inorganic polymers such as zeolites activate cookies in your browser is not current adducts ( chiefly in case... One oxygen atom in each molecule do not ionize at all in.... That desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization ethers, halogens, CO2 and more. Plural clathrate compounds Ba 8 Ga X Ge ( 46-X ) where X=18 nonelectrolytes will not conduct electricity compositions hazardous! Your own website and individual newsletter not contain carbon atoms ; inorganic compounds are often molecules, whereas are! The term refers to many molecular hosts, including calixarenes and cyclodextrins and even some inorganic polymers as. ) where X=18 in many cases, idealized crystal structure models can not the! Substance thus formed contains a certain maximum number of guest molecules and is immiscible with aromatic. Frameworks ( MOFs ) form clathrates meaning with bars, latticed ’ carbon.. End-Use by manufacturers and consumers compounds refer to polymeric hosts containing molecular guests and preparation of compositions hazardous! Basic information about clathrate compounds examples of clathrate compounds 1. proposed that the compounds be called clathrate compounds one of the forms inclusion. All in solution hydrate, in a monohydrate n is 6 etc or! Methane in similar configurations trapped large amounts of methane clathrate from ocean sediments clathrate! Gases elements and their compounds - Duration: 27:42, H. M. Powell named these compounds named.

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